Clicking the Facebook logo in the top-left corner of the website can be your best friend. Clicking it at anytime will bring you back to the main Facebook page where you can see and scroll through all of your News Feed stories.
Clicking and typing within the Find friends field allows you to search through your current friends and clicking one of those search results will bring you to their profile page. You might also notice that clicking in the Find friends field will show you Recent searches of your friends.
Clicking the image above or your name right next to it ("Pamela" in this case) will load your profile page.
Home does the same thing as clicking the Facebook logo in the top-left corner of Facebook - it brings you back to the main Facebook page where the News Feed exists.
Find Friends will show you the people that have requested to be your friend as well as a list of People You May Know. You can request their friendship if you'd like. The icon of a woman and a man shows the same stuff. Go ahead, click it and see.
The message bubble with a zig-zag in it shows your Messages. Click it and it'll show your past conversations with Friends. Clicking a conversation from the drop-down will open the conversation at the bottom of your page in a tiny window so you can keep talking if you'd like.
The globe icon will show you your Notifications. This is a mix of updates that Facebook shares to keep you informed about Friends Requests, Birthdays, and a whole bunch of other things. Feel free to click on a notification from the list that shows when you click the globe to find out more.
The padlock icon shows your Privacy Shortcuts. There is plenty there that you can click to explore.
The downward arrow icon shows a variety of other functions and settings, like how to create Pages, Groups, or Ads.